Some notes from Ansible mentoring

Last night, I met up with my friend Tim Dobson to talk about Ansible. I’m not an expert, but I’ve done a lot of Ansible recently, and he wanted some pointers.

He already had some general knowledge, but wanted some pointers on “other things you can do with Ansible”, so here are a couple of the things we did.

  • If you want to set certain things to happen as “Production” and other things to happen as “Pre-production” you can either have two playbooks (e.g. pre-prod.yml versus prod.yml) which call certain features… OR use something like this:

    ---
    - hosts: localhost
      tasks:
    - set_fact:
        my_run_state: "{% if lookup('env', 'runstate') == '' %}{{ default_run_state|default('prod') }}{% else %}{{ lookup('env', 'runstate')|lower() }}{% endif %}"
    - debug: msg="Doing prod"
      when: my_run_state == 'prod'
    - debug: msg="Doing something else"
      when: my_run_state != 'prod'

    With this, you can define a default run state (prod), override it with a group or host var (if you have, for example, a staging service or proof of concept space), or use your Environment variables to do things. In the last case, you’d execute this as follows:

    runstate=preprod ansible-playbook site.yml

  • You can tag almost every action in your plays. Here are some (contrived) examples:


    ---
    - name: Get facts from your hosts
      tags: configure
      hosts: all
    - name: Tell me all the variable data you've collected
      tags: dump
      hosts: localhost
      tasks:
        - name: Show data
          tags: show
          debug:
            var=item
          with_items: hostvars

    When you then run

    ansible-playbook test.yml --list-tags

    You get

    playbook: test.yml

      play #1 (all): Get facts from your hosts      TAGS: [configure]
          TASK TAGS: [configure]

      play #2 (localhost): Tell me all the variable data you've collected   TAGS: [dump]
          TASK TAGS: [dump, show]

    Now you can run ansible-playbook test.yml -t configure or ansible-playbook test.yml --skip-tags configure

    To show how useful this can be, here’s the output from the “–list-tags” I’ve got on a project I’m doing at work:
    playbook: site.yml

      play #1 (localhost): Provision A-Side Infrastructure  TAGS: [Functional_Testing,A_End]
          TASK TAGS: [A_End, EXCLUDE_K5_FirewallManagers, EXCLUDE_K5_Firewalls, EXCLUDE_K5_Networks, EXCLUDE_K5_SecurityGroups, EXCLUDE_K5_Servers, Functional_Testing, K5_Auth, K5_FirewallManagers, K5_Firewalls, K5_InterProjectLinks, K5_Networks, K5_SecurityGroups, K5_Servers]

      play #2 (localhost): Provision B-Side Infrastructure  TAGS: [Functional_Testing,B_End]
          TASK TAGS: [B_End, EXCLUDE_K5_Firewalls, EXCLUDE_K5_Networks, EXCLUDE_K5_SecurityGroups, EXCLUDE_K5_Servers, Functional_Testing, K5_Auth, K5_FirewallManagers, K5_Firewalls, K5_InterProjectLinks, K5_Networks, K5_SecurityGroups, K5_Servers]

      play #3 (localhost): Provision InterProject Links - Part 1    TAGS: [Functional_Testing,InterProjectLink]
          TASK TAGS: [EXCLUDE_K5_InterProjectLinks, Functional_Testing, InterProjectLink, K5_InterProjectLinks]

      play #4 (localhost): Provision InterProject Links - Part 2    TAGS: [Functional_Testing,InterProjectLink]
          TASK TAGS: [EXCLUDE_K5_InterProjectLinks, Functional_Testing, InterProjectLink, K5_InterProjectLinks]

      play #5 (localhost): Provision TPT environment        TAGS: [Performance_Testing]
          TASK TAGS: [EXCLUDE_K5_FirewallManagers, EXCLUDE_K5_Firewalls, EXCLUDE_K5_Networks, EXCLUDE_K5_SecurityGroups, EXCLUDE_K5_Servers, K5_Auth, K5_FirewallManagers, K5_Firewalls, K5_InterProjectLinks, K5_Networks, K5_SecurityGroups, K5_Servers, Performance_Testing, debug]

    This then means that if I get a build fail part-way through, or if I’m debugging just a particular part, I can run this: ansible-playbook site.yml -t Performance_Testing --skip-tags EXCLUDE_K5_Firewalls,EXCLUDE_K5_SecurityGroups,EXCLUDE_K5_Networks

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