"Observatories Combine to Crack Open the Crab Nebula" by "NASA Goddard Space Flight Center" on Flickr

Nebula Offline Certificate Management with a Raspberry Pi using Bash

I have been playing again, recently, with Nebula, an Open Source Peer-to-Peer VPN product which boasts speed, simplicity and in-built firewalling. Although I only have a few nodes to play with (my VPS, my NAS, my home server and my laptop), I still wanted to simplify, for me, the process of onboarding devices. So, naturally, I spent a few evenings writing a bash script that helps me to automate the creation of my Nebula nodes.

Nebula Certificates

Nebula have implemented their own certificate structure. It’s similar to an x509 “TLS Certificate” (like you’d use to access an HTTPS website, or to establish an OpenVPN connection), but has a few custom fields.

The result of typing “nebula-cert print -path ca.crt” to print the custom fields

In this context, I’ve created a nebula Certificate Authority (CA), using this command:

nebula-cert ca -name nebula.example.org -ips 192.0.2.0/24,198.51.100.0/24,203.0.113.0/24 -groups Mobile,Workstation,Server,Lighthouse,db

So, what does this do?

Well, it creates the certificate and private key files, storing the name for the CA as “nebula.example.org” (there’s a reason for this!) and limiting the subnets and groups (like AWS or Azure Tags) the CA can issue certificates with.

Here, I’ve limited the CA to only issue IP addresses in the RFC5737 “Documentation” ranges, which are 192.0.2.0/24, 198.51.100.0/24 and 203.0.113.0/24, but this can easily be expanded to 10.0.0.0/8 or lots of individual subnets (I tested, and proved 1026 separate subnets which worked fine).

Groups, in Nebula parlance, are building blocks of the Security product, and can act like source or destination filters. In this case, I limited the CA to only being allowed to issue certificates with the groups of “Mobile”, “Workstation”, “Server”, “Lighthouse” and “db”.

As this certificate authority requires no internet access, and only enough access to read and write files, I have created my Nebula CA server on a separate Micro SD card to use with a Raspberry Pi device, and this is used only to generate a new CA certificate each 6 months (in theory, I’ve not done this part yet!), and to sign keys for all the client devices as they come on board.

I copy the ca.crt file to my target machines, and then move on to creating my client certificates

Client Certificates

When you generate key materials for Public Key Cryptographic activities (like this one), you’re supposed to generate the private key on the source device, and the private key should never leave the device on which it’s generated. Nebula allows you to do this, using the nebula-cert command again. That command looks like this:

nebula-cert keygen -out-key host.key -out-pub host.pub

If you notice, there’s a key difference at this point between Nebula’s key signing routine, and an x509 TLS style certificate, you see, this stage would be called a “Certificate Signing Request” or CSR in TLS parlance, and it usually would specify the record details for the certificate (normally things like “region”, “organisational unit”, “subject name” and so on) before sending it to the CA for signing (marking it as trusted).

In the Nebula world, you create a key, and send the public part of that (in this case, “host.pub” but it can have any name you like) to the CA, at which point the CA defines what IP addresses it will have, what groups it is in, and so on, so let’s do that.

nebula-cert sign -ca-crt ca.crt -ca-key ca.key -in-pub host.pub -out-crt host.crt -groups Workstation -ip 192.0.2.5/24 -name host.nebula.example.org

Let’s pick apart these options, shall we? The first four flags “-ca-crt“, “-ca-key“, “-in-pub” and “-out-crt” all refer to the CSR process – it’s reading the CA certificate and key, as well as the public part of the keypair created for the process, and then defines what the output certificate will be called. The next switch, -groups, identifies the tags we’re assigning to this node, then (the mandatory flag) -ip sets the IP address allocated to the node. Note that the certificate is using one of the valid group names, and has been allocated a valid IP address address in the ranges defined above. If you provide a value for the certificate which isn’t valid, you’ll get a warning message.

nebula-cert issues a warning when signing a certificate that tries to specify a value outside the constraints of the CA

In the above screenshot, I’ve bypassed the key generation and asked for the CA to sign with values which don’t match the constraints.

The last part is the name of the certificate. This is relevant because Nebula has a DNS service which can resolve the Nebula IPs to the hostnames assigned on the Certificates.

Anyway… Now that we know how to generate certificates the “hard” way, let’s make life a bit easier for you. I wrote a little script – Nebula Cert Maker, also known as certmaker.sh.

certmaker.sh

So, what does certmaker.sh do that is special?

  1. It auto-assigns an IP address, based on the MD5SUM of the FQDN of the node. It uses (by default) the first CIDR mask (the IP range, written as something like 192.0.2.0/24) specified in the CA certificate. If multiple CIDR masks are specified in the certificate, there’s a flag you can use to select which one to use. You can override this to get a specific increment from the network address.
  2. It takes the provided name (perhaps webserver) and adds, as a suffix, the name of the CA Certificate (like nebula.example.org) to the short name, to make the FQDN. This means that you don’t need to run a DNS service for support staff to access machines (perhaps you’ll have webserver1.nebula.example.org and webserver2.nebula.example.org as well as database.nebula.example.org).
  3. Three “standard” roles have been defined for groups, these are “Server”, “Workstation” and “Lighthouse” [1] (the latter because you can configure Lighthouses to be the DNS servers mentioned in step 2.) Additional groups can also be specified on the command line.

[1] A lighthouse, in Nebula terms, is a publically accessible node, either with a static IP, or a DNS name which resolves to a known host, that can help other nodes find each other. Because all the nodes connect to it (or a couple of “it”s) this is a prime place to run the DNS server, as, well, it knows where all the nodes are!

So, given these three benefits, let’s see these in a script. This script is (at least currently) at the end of the README file in that repo.

# Create the CA
mkdir -p /tmp/nebula_ca
nebula-cert ca -out-crt /tmp/nebula_ca/ca.crt -out-key /tmp/nebula_ca/ca.key -ips 192.0.2.0/24,198.51.100.0/24 -name nebula.example.org

# First lighthouse, lighthouse1.nebula.example.org - 192.0.2.1, group "Lighthouse"
./certmaker.sh --cert_path /tmp/nebula_ca --name lighthouse1 --ip 1 --lighthouse

# Second lighthouse, lighthouse2.nebula.example.org - 192.0.2.2, group "Lighthouse"
./certmaker.sh -c /tmp/nebula_ca -n lighthouse2 -i 2 -l

# First webserver, webserver1.nebula.example.org - 192.0.2.168, groups "Server" and "web"
./certmaker.sh --cert_path /tmp/nebula_ca --name webserver1 --server --group web

# Second webserver, webserver2.nebula.example.org - 192.0.2.191, groups "Server" and "web"
./certmaker.sh -c /tmp/nebula_ca -n webserver2 -s -g web

# Database Server, db.nebula.example.org - 192.0.2.182, groups "Server" and "db"
./certmaker.sh --cert_path /tmp/nebula_ca --name db --server --group db

# First workstation, admin1.nebula.example.org - 198.51.100.205, group "Workstation"
./certmaker.sh --cert_path /tmp/nebula_ca --index 1 --name admin1 --workstation

# Second workstation, admin2.nebula.example.org - 198.51.100.77, group "Workstation"
./certmaker.sh -c /tmp/nebula_ca -d 1 -n admin2 -w

# First Mobile device - Create the private/public key pairing first
nebula-cert keygen -out-key mobile1.key -out-pub mobile1.pub
# Then sign it, mobile1.nebula.example.org - 198.51.100.217, group "mobile"
./certmaker.sh --cert_path /tmp/nebula_ca --index 1 --name mobile1 --group mobile --public mobile1.pub

# Second Mobile device - Create the private/public key pairing first
nebula-cert keygen -out-key mobile2.key -out-pub mobile2.pub
# Then sign it, mobile2.nebula.example.org - 198.51.100.22, group "mobile"
./certmaker.sh -c /tmp/nebula_ca -d 1 -n mobile2 -g mobile -p mobile2.pub

Technically, the mobile devices are simulating the local creation of the private key, and the sharing of the public part of that key. It also simulates what might happen in a more controlled environment – not where everything is run locally.

So, let’s pick out some spots where this content might be confusing. I’ve run each type of invocation twice, once with the short version of all the flags (e.g. -c instead of --cert_path, -n instead of --name) and so on, and one with the longer versions. Before each ./certmaker.sh command, I’ve added a comment, showing what the hostname would be, the IP address, and the Nebula Groups assigned to that node.

It is also possible to override the FQDN with your own FQDN, but this command option isn’t in here. Also, if the CA doesn’t provide a CIDR mask, one will be selected for you (10.44.88.0/24), or you can provide one with the -b/--subnet flag.

If the CA has multiple names (e.g. nebula.example.org and nebula.example.com), then the name for the host certificates will be host.nebula.example.org and also host.nebula.example.com.

Using Bash

So, if you’ve looked at, well, almost anything on my site, you’ll see that I like to use tools like Ansible and Terraform to deploy things, but for something which is going to be run on this machine, I’d like to keep things as simple as possible… and there’s not much in this script that needed more than what Bash offers us.

For those who don’t know, bash is the default shell for most modern Linux distributions and Docker containers. It can perform regular expression parsing (checking that strings, or specific collections of characters appear in a variable), mathematics, and perform extensive loop and checks on values.

I used a bash template found on a post at BetterDev.blog to give me a basic structure – usage, logging and parameter parsing. I needed two functions to parse and check whether IP addresses were valid, and what ranges of those IP addresses might be available. These were both found online. To get just enough of the MD5SUM to generate a random IPv4 address, I used a function to convert the hexedecimal number that the MDSUM produces, and then turned that into a decimal number, which I loop around the address space in the subnets. Lastly, I made extensive use of Bash Arrays in this. This was largely thanks to an article on OpenSource.com about bash arrays. It’s well worth a read!

So, take a look at the internals of the script, if you want to know some options on writing bash scripts that manipulate IP addresses and read the output of files!

If you’re looking for some simple tasks to start your portfolio of work, there are some “good first issue” tasks in the “issues” of the repo, and I’d be glad to help you work through them.

Wrap up

I hope you enjoy using this script, and I hope, if you’re planning on writing some bash scripts any time soon, that you take a look over the code and consider using some of the templates I reference.

Featured image is “Observatories Combine to Crack Open the Crab Nebula” by “NASA Goddard Space Flight Center” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY license.

"Honey pots" by "Nicholas" on Flickr

Adding MITM (or “Trusted Certificate Authorities”) proxy certificates for Linux and Linux-like Environments

In some work environments, you may find that a “Man In The Middle” (also known as MITM) proxy may have been configured to inspect HTTPS traffic. If you work in a predominantly Windows based environment, you may have had some TLS certificates deployed to your computer when you logged in, or by group policy.

I’ve previously mentioned that if you’re using Firefox on your work machines where you’ve had these certificates pushed to your machine, then you’ll need to enable a configuration flag to make those work under Firefox (“security.enterprise_roots.enabled“), but this is talking about Linux (like Ubuntu, Fedora, CentOS, etc.) and Linux-like environments (like WSL, MSYS2)

Late edit 2021-05-06: Following a conversation with SiDoyle, I added some notes at the end of the post about using the System CA path with the Python Requests library. These notes were initially based on a post by Mohclips from several years ago!

Start with Windows

From your web browser of choice, visit any HTTPS web page that you know will be inspected by your proxy.

If you’re using Mozilla Firefox

In Firefox, click on this part of the address bar and click on the right arrow next to “Connection secure”:

Clicking on the Padlock and then clicking on the Right arrow will take you to the “Connection Security” screen.
Certification Root obscured, but this where we prove we have a MITM certificate.

Click on “More Information” to take you to the “Page info” screen

More obscured details, but click on “View Certificate”

In recent versions of Firefox, clicking on “View Certificate” takes you to a new page which looks like this:

Mammoth amounts of obscuring here! The chain runs from left to right, with the right-most blob being the Root Certificate

Click on the right-most tab of this screen, and navigate down to where it says “Miscellaneous”. Click on the link to download the “PEM (cert)”.

The details on the Certificate Authority (highly obscured!), but here is where we get our “Root” Certificate for this proxy.

Save this certificate somewhere sensible, we’ll need it in a bit!

Note that if you’ve got multiple proxies (perhaps for different network paths, or perhaps for a cloud proxy and an on-premises proxy) you might need to force yourself in into several situations to get these.

If you’re using Google Chrome / Microsoft Edge

In Chrome or Edge, click on the same area, and select “Certificate”:

This will take you to a screen listing the “Certification Path”. This is the chain of trust between the “Root” certificate for the proxy to the certificate they issue so I can visit my website:

This screen shows the chain of trust from the top of the chain (the “Root” certificate) to the bottom (the certificate they issued so I could visit this website)

Click on the topmost line of the list, and then click “View Certificate” to see the root certificate. Click on “Details”:

The (obscured) details for the root CA.

Click on “Copy to File” to open the “Certificate Export Wizard”:

In the Certificate Export Wizard, click “Next”
Select “Base-64 encoded X.509 (.CER)” and click “Next”
Click on the “Browse…” button to select a path.
Name the file something sensible, and put the file somewhere you’ll find it shortly. Click “Save”, then click “Next”.

Once you’ve saved this file, rename it to have the extension .pem. You may need to do this from a command line!

Copy the certificate into the environment and add it to the system keychain

Ubuntu or Debian based systems as an OS, or as a WSL environment

As root, copy the proxy’s root key into /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/<your_proxy_name>.crt (for example, /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/proxy.my.corp.crt) and then run update-ca-certificates to update the system-wide certificate store.

RHEL/CentOS as an OS, or as a WSL environment

As root, copy the proxy’s root key into /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/<your_proxy_name>.pem (for example, /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/proxy.my.corp.pem) and then run update-ca-trust to update the system-wide certificate store.

MSYS2 or the Ruby Installer

Open the path to your MSYS2 environment (e.g. C:\Ruby30-x64\msys64) using your file manager (Explorer) and run msys2.exe. Then paste the proxy’s root key into the etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors subdirectory, naming it <your_proxy_name>.pem. In the MSYS2 window, run update-ca-trust to update the environment-wide certificate store.

If you’ve obtained the Ruby Installer from https://rubyinstaller.org/ and installed it from there, assuming you accepted the default path of C:\Ruby<VERSION>-x64 (e.g. C:\Ruby30-x64) you need to perform the above step (running update-ca-trust) and then copy the file from C:\Ruby30-x64\mysys64\etc\pki\ca-trust\extracted\pem\tls-ca-bundle.pem to C:\Ruby30-x64\ssl\cert.pem

Using the keychain

Most of your Linux and Linux-Like environments will operate fine with this keychain, but for some reason, Python needs an environment variable to be passed to it for this. As I encounter more environments, I’ll update this post!

The path to the system keychain varies between releases, but under Debian based systems, it is: /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt while under RedHat based systems, it is: /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt.

Python “Requests” library

If you’re getting TLS errors in your Python applications, you need the REQUESTS_CA_BUNDLE environment variable set to the path for the system-wide keychain. You may want to add this line to your /etc/profile to include this path.

Sources:

Featured image is “Honey pots” by “Nicholas” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY license.

"Family" by "Ivan" on Flickr

Debian on Docker using Vagrant

I want to use Vagrant-Docker to try standing up some environments. There’s no reasonable justification, it’s just a thing I wanted to do. Normally, I’d go into this long and rambling story about why… but on this occasion, the reason was “Because it’s possible”…

TL;DR?: Get the code from the repo and enjoy 😁

Installing Docker

On Ubuntu you can install Docker following the instructions on the Docker Install Page, which includes a convenience script (that runs all the commands you need), if you want to use it. Similar instructions for Debian, CentOS and Fedora exist.

On Windows or Mac there are downloads you can get from the Docker Hub. The Windows Version requires WSL2. I don’t have a Mac, so I don’t know what the requirements are there! Installing WSL2 has a whole host of extra steps that I can’t really do justice to. See this Microsoft article for details.

Installing Vagrant

On Debian and Ubuntu you can add the HashiCorp Apt Repo and then install Vagrant, using these commands:

curl -fsSL https://apt.releases.hashicorp.com/gpg | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-add-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://apt.releases.hashicorp.com $(lsb_release -cs) main"
sudo apt install vagrant

There are similar instructions for RHEL, CentOS and Fedora users there too.

Windows and Mac users will have to get the application from the download page.

Creating your Dockerfile

A Dockerfile is a simple text file which has a series of line prefixes which instruct the Docker image processor to add certain instructions to the Docker Image. I found two pages which helped me with what to add for this; “Ansible. Docker. Vagrant. Bringing together” and the git repo “AkihiroSuda/containerized-systemd“.

You see, while a Dockerfile is great at starting single binary files or scripts, it’s not very good at running SystemD… and I needed SystemD to be able to run the SSH service that Vagrant requires, and to also run the scripts and commands I needed for the image I wanted to build…

Sooooo…. here’s the Dockerfile I created:

# Based on https://vtorosyan.github.io/ansible-docker-vagrant/
# and https://github.com/AkihiroSuda/containerized-systemd/

FROM debian:buster AS debian_with_systemd

# This stuff enables SystemD on Debian based systems
STOPSIGNAL SIGRTMIN+3
RUN DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt update && DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt install -y --no-install-recommends systemd systemd-sysv dbus dbus-user-session
COPY docker-entrypoint.sh /
RUN chmod 755 /docker-entrypoint.sh
ENTRYPOINT [ "/docker-entrypoint.sh" ]
CMD [ "/bin/bash" ]

# This part installs an SSH Server (required for Vagrant)
RUN DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt install -y sudo openssh-server
RUN mkdir /var/run/sshd
#    We enable SSH here, but don't start it with "now" as the build stage doesn't run anything long-lived.
RUN systemctl enable ssh
EXPOSE 22

# This part creates the vagrant user, sets the password to "vagrant", adds the insecure key and sets up password-less sudo.
RUN useradd -G sudo -m -U -s /bin/bash vagrant
#    chpasswd takes a colon delimited list of username/password pairs.
RUN echo 'vagrant:vagrant' | chpasswd
RUN mkdir -m 700 /home/vagrant/.ssh
# This key from https://github.com/hashicorp/vagrant/tree/main/keys. It will be replaced on first run.
RUN echo 'ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEA6NF8iallvQVp22WDkTkyrtvp9eWW6A8YVr+kz4TjGYe7gHzIw+niNltGEFHzD8+v1I2YJ6oXevct1YeS0o9HZyN1Q9qgCgzUFtdOKLv6IedplqoPkcmF0aYet2PkEDo3MlTBckFXPITAMzF8dJSIFo9D8HfdOV0IAdx4O7PtixWKn5y2hMNG0zQPyUecp4pzC6kivAIhyfHilFR61RGL+GPXQ2MWZWFYbAGjyiYJnAmCP3NOTd0jMZEnDkbUvxhMmBYSdETk1rRgm+R4LOzFUGaHqHDLKLX+FIPKcF96hrucXzcWyLbIbEgE98OHlnVYCzRdK8jlqm8tehUc9c9WhQ== vagrant insecure public key' > /home/vagrant/.ssh/authorized_keys
RUN chmod 600 /home/vagrant/.ssh/authorized_keys
RUN chown -R vagrant:vagrant /home/vagrant
RUN echo 'vagrant ALL=(ALL:ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL' >> /etc/sudoers

This Dockerfile calls out to a separate script, called docker-entrypoint.sh, taken verbatim from AkihiroSuda’s repo, so here’s that file:

#!/bin/bash
set -ex
container=docker
export container

if [ $# -eq 0 ]; then
	echo >&2 'ERROR: No command specified. You probably want to run `journalctl -f`, or maybe `bash`?'
	exit 1
fi

if [ ! -t 0 ]; then
	echo >&2 'ERROR: TTY needs to be enabled (`docker run -t ...`).'
	exit 1
fi

env >/etc/docker-entrypoint-env

cat >/etc/systemd/system/docker-entrypoint.target <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=the target for docker-entrypoint.service
Requires=docker-entrypoint.service systemd-logind.service systemd-user-sessions.service
EOF
cat /etc/systemd/system/docker-entrypoint.target

quoted_args="$(printf " %q" "${@}")"
echo "${quoted_args}" >/etc/docker-entrypoint-cmd
cat /etc/docker-entrypoint-cmd

cat >/etc/systemd/system/docker-entrypoint.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=docker-entrypoint.service

[Service]
ExecStart=/bin/bash -exc "source /etc/docker-entrypoint-cmd"
# EXIT_STATUS is either an exit code integer or a signal name string, see systemd.exec(5)
ExecStopPost=/bin/bash -ec "if echo \${EXIT_STATUS} | grep [A-Z] > /dev/null; then echo >&2 \"got signal \${EXIT_STATUS}\"; systemctl exit \$(( 128 + \$( kill -l \${EXIT_STATUS} ) )); else systemctl exit \${EXIT_STATUS}; fi"
StandardInput=tty-force
StandardOutput=inherit
StandardError=inherit
WorkingDirectory=$(pwd)
EnvironmentFile=/etc/docker-entrypoint-env

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
cat /etc/systemd/system/docker-entrypoint.service

systemctl mask systemd-firstboot.service systemd-udevd.service
systemctl unmask systemd-logind
systemctl enable docker-entrypoint.service

systemd=
if [ -x /lib/systemd/systemd ]; then
	systemd=/lib/systemd/systemd
elif [ -x /usr/lib/systemd/systemd ]; then
	systemd=/usr/lib/systemd/systemd
elif [ -x /sbin/init ]; then
	systemd=/sbin/init
else
	echo >&2 'ERROR: systemd is not installed'
	exit 1
fi
systemd_args="--show-status=false --unit=multi-user.target"
echo "$0: starting $systemd $systemd_args"
exec $systemd $systemd_args

Now, if you were to run this straight in Docker, it will fail, because you must pass certain flags to Docker to get this to run. These flags are:

  • -t : pass a “TTY” to the shell
  • --tmpfs /tmp : Create a temporary filesystem in /tmp
  • --tmpfs /run : Create another temporary filesystem in /run
  • --tmpfs /run/lock : Apparently having a tmpfs in /run isn’t enough – you ALSO need one in /run/lock
  • -v /sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:ro : Mount the CGroup kernel configuration values into the container

(I found these flags via a RedHat blog post, and a Podman issue on Github.)

So, how would this look, if you were to try and run it?

docker exec -t --tmpfs /tmp --tmpfs /run --tmpfs /run/lock -v /sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:ro YourImage

Blimey, what a long set of text! Perhaps we could hide that behind something a bit more legible? Enter Vagrant.

Creating your Vagrantfile

Vagrant is an abstraction tool, designed to hide complicated virtualisation scripts into a simple command. In this case, we’re hiding a containerisation script into a simple command.

Like with the Dockerfile, I made extensive use of the two pages I mentioned before, as well as the two pages to get the flags to run this.

# Based on https://vtorosyan.github.io/ansible-docker-vagrant/
# and https://github.com/AkihiroSuda/containerized-systemd/
# and https://developers.redhat.com/blog/2016/09/13/running-systemd-in-a-non-privileged-container/
# with tweaks indicated by https://github.com/containers/podman/issues/3295
ENV['VAGRANT_DEFAULT_PROVIDER'] = 'docker'
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  config.vm.provider "docker" do |d|
    d.build_dir       = "."
    d.has_ssh         = true
    d.remains_running = false
    d.create_args     = ['--tmpfs', '/tmp', '--tmpfs', '/run', '--tmpfs', '/run/lock', '-v', '/sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:ro', '-t']
  end
end

If you create that file, and run vagrant up you’ll get a working Vagrant boot… But if you try and execute any shell scripts, they’ll fail to run, as the they aren’t passed in with execute permissions… so I want to use Ansible to execute things, as these don’t require execute permissions on the /vagrant directory (also, as the thing I’m building in there requires Ansible… so it’s helpful either way 😁)

Executing Ansible scripts

Ansible still expects to find python in /usr/bin/python but current systems don’t make the symlink to /usr/bin/python3, as python was typically a symlink to /usr/bin/python2… and also I wanted to put the PPA for Ansible in the sources, which is what the Ansible team recommend in their documentation. I’ve done this as part of the Dockerfile, as again, I can’t run scripts from Vagrant. So, here’s the addition I made to the Dockerfile.

FROM debian_with_systemd AS debian_with_systemd_and_ansible
RUN apt install -y gnupg2 lsb-release software-properties-common
RUN apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 93C4A3FD7BB9C367
RUN add-apt-repository "deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/ansible/ansible/ubuntu trusty main"
RUN apt install -y ansible
# Yes, I know. Trusty? On Debian Buster?? But, that's what the Ansible Docs say!

In the Vagrantfile, I’ve added this block:

config.vm.provision "ansible_local" do |ansible|
  ansible.playbook = "test.yml"
end

And I created a test.yml, which looks like this:

---
- hosts: all
  tasks:
  - debug:
      msg: "Hello from Docker"

Running it

So how does this look on Windows when I run it?

PS C:\Dev\VagrantDockerBuster> vagrant up
==> default: Creating and configuring docker networks...
==> default: Building the container from a Dockerfile...
<SNIP A LOAD OF DOCKER STUFF>
    default: #20 DONE 0.1s
    default:
    default: Image: 190ffdeaeed0b7ed206097e6c1d4b5cc796a428700c9bd3e27eedacce47fb63b
==> default: Creating the container...
    default:   Name: 2021-02-13DockerBusterWithSSH_default_1613469604
    default:  Image: 190ffdeaeed0b7ed206097e6c1d4b5cc796a428700c9bd3e27eedacce47fb63b
    default: Volume: C:/Users/SPRIGGSJ/OneDrive - FUJITSU/Documents/95 My Projects/2021-02-13 Docker Buster With SSH:/vagrant
    default:   Port: 127.0.0.1:2222:22
    default:
    default: Container created: b64ed264d8949b12
==> default: Enabling network interfaces...
==> default: Starting container...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default:
    default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
    default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
    default:
    default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Running provisioner: ansible_local...
    default: Running ansible-playbook...

PLAY [all] *********************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************
[WARNING]: Platform linux on host default is using the discovered Python
interpreter at /usr/bin/python, but future installation of another Python
interpreter could change this. See https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/referen
ce_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html for more information.
ok: [default]

TASK [debug] *******************************************************************
ok: [default] => {
    "msg": "Hello from Docker"
}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
default                    : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0   

PS C:\Dev\VagrantDockerBuster>

And on Linux?

Bringing machine 'default' up with 'docker' provider...
==> default: Creating and configuring docker networks...
==> default: Building the container from a Dockerfile...
<SNIP A LOAD OF DOCKER STUFF>
    default: Removing intermediate container e56bed4f7be9
    default:  ---> cef749c205bf
    default: Successfully built cef749c205bf
    default:
    default: Image: cef749c205bf
==> default: Creating the container...
    default:   Name: 2021-02-13DockerBusterWithSSH_default_1613470091
    default:  Image: cef749c205bf
    default: Volume: /home/spriggsj/Projects/2021-02-13 Docker Buster With SSH:/vagrant
    default:   Port: 127.0.0.1:2222:22
    default:
    default: Container created: 3fe46b02d7ad10ab
==> default: Enabling network interfaces...
==> default: Starting container...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default:
    default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
    default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
    default:
    default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
    default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
    default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Running provisioner: ansible_local...
    default: Running ansible-playbook...

PLAY [all] *********************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************
[WARNING]: Platform linux on host default is using the discovered Python
interpreter at /usr/bin/python, but future installation of another Python
interpreter could change this. See https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/referen
ce_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html for more information.
ok: [default]

TASK [debug] *******************************************************************
ok: [default] => {
    "msg": "Hello from Docker"
}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
default                    : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0

So, if you’re crazy and want to do Vagrant using Docker with Debian Buster and Ansible, this is how to do it. I don’t know how much I’m likely to be using this in the future, but if you use it, let me know what you’re doing with it! 😀

Featured image is “Family” by “Ivan” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY license.

"Main console" by "Steve Parker" on Flickr

Running services (like SSH, nginx, etc) on Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL1) on boot

I recently got a new laptop, and for various reasons, I’m going to be primarily running Windows on that laptop. However, I still like having a working SSH server, running in the context of my Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) environment.

Initially, trying to run service ssh start failed with an error, because you need to re-execute the ssh configuration steps which are missed in a WSL environment. To fix that, run sudo apt install --reinstall openssh-server.

Once you know your service runs OK, you start digging around to find out how to start it on boot, and you’ll see lots of people saying things like “Just run a shell script that starts your first service, and then another shell script for the next service.”

Well, the frustration for me is that Linux already has this capability – the current popular version is called SystemD, but a slightly older variant is still knocking around in modern linux distributions, and it’s called SystemV Init, often referred to as just “sysv” or “init.d”.

The way that those services work is that you have an “init” file in /etc/init.d and then those files have a symbolic link into a “runlevel” directory, for example /etc/rc3.d. Each symbolic link is named S##service or K##service, where the ## represents the order in which it’s to be launched. The SSH Daemon, for example, that I want to run is created in there as /etc/rc3.d/S01ssh.

So, how do I make this work in the grander scheme of WSL? I can’t use SystemD, where I could say systemctl enable --now ssh, instead I need to add a (yes, I know) shell script, which looks in my desired runlevel directory. Runlevel 3 is the level at which network services have started, hence using that one. If I was trying to set up a graphical desktop, I’d instead be looking to use Runlevel 5, but the X Windows system isn’t ported to Windows like that yet… Anyway.

Because the rc#.d directory already has this structure for ordering and naming services to load, I can just step over this directory looking for files which match or do not match the naming convention, and I do that with this script:

#! /bin/bash
function run_rc() {
  base="$(basename "$1")"
  if [[ ${base:0:1} == "S" ]]
  then
    "$1" start
  else
    "$1" stop
  fi
}

if [ "$1" != "" ] && [ -e "$1" ]
then
  run_rc "$1"
else
  rc=3
  if [ "$1" != "" ] && [ -e "/etc/rc${$1}.d/" ]
  then
    rc="$1"
  fi
  for digit1 in {0..9}
  do
    for digit2 in {0..9}
    do
      find "/etc/rc${rc}.d/" -name "[SK]${digit1}${digit2}*" -exec "$0" '{}' \; 2>/dev/null
    done
  done
fi

I’ve put this script in /opt/wsl_init.sh

This does a bit of trickery, but basically runs the bottom block first. It loops over the digits 0 to 9 twice (giving you 00, 01, 02 and so on up to 99) and looks in /etc/rc3.d for any file containing the filename starting S or K and then with the two digits you’ve looped to by that point. Finally, it runs itself again, passing the name of the file it just found, and this is where the top block comes in.

In the top block we look at the “basename” – the part of the path supplied, without any prefixed directories attached, and then extract just the first character (that’s the ${base:0:1} part) to see whether it’s an “S” or anything else. If it’s an S (which everything there is likely to be), it executes the task like this: /etc/rc3.d/S01ssh start and this works because it’s how that script is designed! You can run one of the following instances of this command: service ssh start, /etc/init.d/ssh start or /etc/rc3.d/S01ssh start. There are other options, notably “stop” or “status”, but these aren’t really useful here.

Now, how do we make Windows execute this on boot? I’m using NSSM, the “Non-sucking service manager” to add a line to the Windows System services. I placed the NSSM executable in C:\Program Files\nssm\nssm.exe, and then from a command line, ran C:\Program Files\nssm\nssm.exe install WSL_Init.

I configured it with the Application Path: C:\Windows\System32\wsl.exe and the Arguments: -d ubuntu -e sudo /opt/wsl_init.sh. Note that this only works because I’ve also got Sudo setup to execute this command without prompting for a password.

Here I invoke C:\Windows\System32\wsl.exe -d ubuntu -e sudo /opt/wsl_init.sh
I define the name of the service, as Services will see it, and also the description of the service.
I put in MY username and My Windows Password here, otherwise I’m not running WSL in my user context, but another one.

And then I rebooted. SSH was running as I needed it.

Featured image is “Main console” by “Steve Parker” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY license.

"pharmacy" by "Tim Evanson" on Flickr

AWX – The Gateway Drug to Ansible Tower

A love letter to Ansible Tower

I love Ansible… I mean, I really love Ansible. You can ask anyone, and they’ll tell you my first love is my wife, then my children… and then it’s Ansible.

OK, maybe it’s Open Source and then Ansible, but either way, Ansible is REALLY high up there.

But, while I love Ansible, I love what Ansible Tower brings to an environment. See, while you get to easily and quickly manage a fleet of machines with Ansible, Ansible Tower gives you the fine grained control over what you need to expose to your developers, your ops team, or even, in a fit of “what-did-you-just-do”-ness, your manager. (I should probably mention that Ansible Tower is actually part of a much larger portfolio of products, called Ansible Automation Platform, and there’s some hosted SaaS stuff that goes with it… but the bit I really want to talk about is Tower, so I’ll be talking about Tower and not Ansible Automation Platform. Sorry!)

Ansible Tower has a scheduling engine, so you can have a “Go” button, for deploying the latest software to your fleet, or just for the 11PM patching cycle. It has a credential store, so your teams can’t just quickly go and perform an undocumented quick fix on that “flaky” box – they need to do their changes via Ansible. And lastly, it has an inventory, so you can see that the last 5 jobs failed to deploy on that host, so maybe you’ve got a problem with it.

One thing that people don’t so much love to do, is to get a license to deploy Tower, particularly if they just want to quickly spin up a demonstration for some colleagues to show how much THEY love Ansible. And for those people, I present AWX.

The first hit is free

One of the glorious and beautiful things that RedHat did, when they bought Ansible, was to make the same assertion about the Ansible products that they make to the rest of their product line, which is… while they may sell a commercial product, underneath it will be an Open Source version of that product, and you can be part of developing and improving that version, to help improve the commercial product. Thus was released AWX.

Now, I hear the nay-sayers commenting, “but what if you have an issue with AWX at 2AM, how do you get support on that”… and to those people, I reply: “If you need support at 2AM for your box, AWX is not the tool for you – what you need is Tower.”… Um, I mean Ansible Automation Platform. However, Tower takes a bit more setting up than what I’d want to do for a quick demo, and it has a few more pre-requisites. ANYWAY, enough about dealing with the nay-sayers.

AWX is an application inside Docker containers. It’s split into three parts, the AWX Web container, which has the REST API. There’s also a PostgreSQL database inside there too, and one “Engine”, which is the separate container which gets playbooks from your version control system, asks for any dynamic inventories, and then runs those playbooks on your inventories.

I like running demos of Tower, using AWX, because it’s reasonably easy to get stood up, and it’s reasonably close to what Tower looks and behaves like (except for the logos)… and, well, it’s a good gateway to getting people interested in what Tower can do for them, without them having to pay (or spend time signing up for evaluation licenses) for the environment in the first place.

And what’s more, it can all be automated

Yes, folks, because AWX is just a set of docker containers (and an install script), and Ansible knows how to start Docker containers (and run an install script), I can add an Ansible playbook to my cloud-init script, Vagrantfile or, let’s face it, when things go really wrong, put it in a bash script for some poor keyboard jockey to install for you.

If you’re running a demo, and you don’t want to get a POC (proof of concept) or evaluation license for Ansible Tower, then the chances are you’re probably not running this on RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) either. That’s OK, once you’ve sold the room on using Tower (by using AWX), you can sell them on using RHEL too. So, I’ll be focusing on using CentOS 8 instead. Partially because there’s a Vagrant box for CentOS 8, but also because I can also use CentOS 8 on AWS, where I can prove that the Ansible Script I’m putting into my Vagrantfile will also deploy nicely via Cloud-Init too. With a very small number of changes, this is likely to work on anything that runs Docker, so everything from Arch to Ubuntu… probably 😁

“OK then. How can you work this magic, eh?” I hear from the back of the room. OK, pipe down, nay-sayers.

First, install Ansible on your host. You just need to run dnf install -y ansible.

Next, you need to install Docker. This is a marked difference between AWX and Ansible Tower, as AWX is based on Docker, but Ansible Tower uses other magic to make it work. When you’re selling the benefits of Tower, note that it’s not a 1-for-1 match at this point, but it’s not a big issue. Fortunately, CentOS can install Docker Community edition quite easily. At this point, I’m swapping to using Ansible playbooks. At the end, I’ll drop a link to where you can get all this in one big blob… In fact, we’re likely to use it with our Cloud-Init deployment.

Aw yehr, here’s the good stuff

tasks:
- name: Update all packages
  dnf:
    name: "*"
    state: latest

- name: Add dependency for "yum config-manager"
  dnf:
    name: yum-utils
    state: present

- name: Add the Docker Repo
  shell: yum config-manager --add-repo https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
  args:
    creates: /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo
    warn: false

- name: Install Docker
  dnf:
    name:
    - docker-ce
    - docker-ce-cli
    - containerd.io
    state: present
  notify: Start Docker

That first stanza – update all packages? Well, that’s because containerd.io relies on a newer version of libseccomp, which hasn’t been built in the CentOS 8 Vagrantbox I’m using.

The next one? That ensures I can run yum config-manager to add a repo. I could use the copy module in Ansible to create the repo files so yum and/or dnf could use that instead, but… meh, this is a single line shell command.

And then we install the repo, and the docker-ce packages we require. We use the “notify” statement to trigger a handler call to start Docker, like this:

handlers:
- name: Start Docker
  systemd:
    name: docker
    state: started

Fab. We’ve got Docker. Now, let’s clone the AWX repo to our machine. Again, we’re doing this with Ansible, naturally :)

tasks:
- name: Clone AWX repo to local path
  git:
    repo: https://github.com/ansible/awx.git
    dest: /opt/awx

- name: Get latest AWX tag
  shell: |
    if [ $(git status -s | wc -l) -gt 0 ]
    then
      git stash >/dev/null 2>&1
    fi
    git fetch --tags && git describe --tags $(git rev-list --tags --max-count=1)
    if [ $(git stash list | wc -l) -gt 0 ]
    then
      git stash pop >/dev/null 2>&1
    fi
  args:
    chdir: /opt/awx
  register: latest_tag
  changed_when: false

- name: Use latest released version of AWX
  git:
    repo: https://github.com/ansible/awx.git
    dest: /opt/awx
    version: "{{ latest_tag.stdout }}"

OK, there’s a fair bit to get from this, but essentially, we clone the repo from Github, then ask (using a collection of git commands) for the latest released version (yes, I’ve been bitten by just using the head of “devel” before), and then we check out that released version.

Fab, now we can configure it.

tasks:
- name: Set or Read admin password
  set_fact:
    admin_password_was_generated: "{{ (admin_password is defined or lookup('env', 'admin_password') != '') | ternary(false, true) }}"
    admin_password: "{{ admin_password | default (lookup('env', 'admin_password') | default(lookup('password', 'pw.admin_password chars=ascii_letters,digits length=20'), true) ) }}"

- name: Configure AWX installer
  lineinfile:
    path: /opt/awx/installer/inventory
    regexp: "^#?{{ item.key }}="
    line: "{{ item.key }}={{ item.value }}"
  loop:
  - key: "awx_web_hostname"
    value: "{{ ansible_fqdn }}"
  - key: "pg_password"
    value: "{{ lookup('password', 'pw.pg_password chars=ascii_letters,digits length=20') }}"
  - key: "rabbitmq_password"
    value: "{{ lookup('password', 'pw.rabbitmq_password chars=ascii_letters,digits length=20') }}"
  - key: "rabbitmq_erlang_cookie"
    value: "{{ lookup('password', 'pw.rabbitmq_erlang_cookie chars=ascii_letters,digits length=20') }}"
  - key: "admin_password"
    value: "{{ admin_password }}"
  - key: "secret_key"
    value: "{{ lookup('password', 'pw.secret_key chars=ascii_letters,digits length=64') }}"
  - key: "create_preload_data"
    value: "False"
  loop_control:
    label: "{{ item.key }}"

If we don’t already have a password defined, then create one. We register the fact we’ve had to create one, as we’ll need to tell ourselves it once the build is finished.

After that, we set a collection of values into the installer – the hostname, passwords, secret keys and so on. It loops over a key/value pair, and passes these to a regular expression rewrite command, so at the end, we have the settings we want, without having to change this script between releases.

When this is all done, we execute the installer. I’ve seen this done two ways. In an ideal world, you’d throw this into an Ansible shell module, and get it to execute the install, but the problem with that is that the AWX install takes quite a while, so I’d much rather actually be able to see what’s going on… and so, instead, we exit our prepare script at this point, and drop back to the shell to run the installer. Let’s look at both options, and you can decide which one you want to do. In my script, I’m doing the first, but just because it’s a bit neater to have everything in one place.

- name: Run the AWX install.
  shell: ansible-playbook -i inventory install.yml
  args:
    chdir: /opt/awx/installer
cd /opt/awx/installer
ansible-playbook -i inventory install.yml

When this is done, you get a prepared environment, ready to access using the username admin and the password of … well, whatever you set admin_password to.

AWX takes a little while to stand up, so you might want to run this next Ansible stanza to see when it’s ready to go.

- name: Test access to AWX
  tower_user:
    tower_host: "http://{{ ansible_fqdn }}"
    tower_username: admin
    tower_password: "{{ admin_password }}"
    email: "admin@{{ ansible_fqdn }}"
    first_name: "admin"
    last_name: ""
    password: "{{ admin_password }}"
    username: admin
    superuser: yes
    auditor: no
  register: _result
  until: _result.failed == false
  retries: 240 # retry 240 times
  delay: 5 # pause for 5 sec between each try

The upshot to using that command there is that it sets the email address of the admin account to “admin@your.awx.example.org“, if the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your machine is your.awx.example.org.

Moving from the Theoretical to the Practical

Now we’ve got our playbook, let’s wrap this up in both a Vagrant Vagrantfile and a Terraform script, this means you can deploy it locally, to test something internally, and in “the cloud”.

To simplify things, and because the version of Ansible deployed on the Vagrant box isn’t the one I want to use, I am using a single “user-data.sh” script for both Vagrant and Terraform. Here that is:

#!/bin/bash
if [ -e "$(which yum)" ]
then
  yum install git python3-pip -y
  pip3 install ansible docker docker-compose
else
  echo "This script only supports CentOS right now."
  exit 1
fi

git clone https://gist.github.com/JonTheNiceGuy/024d72f970d6a1c6160a6e9c3e642e07 /tmp/Install_AWX
cd /tmp/Install_AWX
/usr/local/bin/ansible-playbook Install_AWX.yml

While they both have their differences, they both can execute a script once the machine has finished booting. Let’s start with Vagrant.

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  config.vm.box = "centos/8"

  config.vm.provider :virtualbox do |v|
    v.memory = 4096
  end

  config.vm.provision "shell", path: "user-data.sh"

  config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080, auto_correct: true
end

To boot this up, once you’ve got Vagrant and Virtualbox installed, run vagrant up and it’ll tell you that it’s set up a port forward from the HTTP port (TCP/80) to a “high” port – TCP/8080. If there’s a collision (because you’re running something else on TCP/8080), it’ll tell you what port it’s forwarded the HTTP port to instead. Once you’ve finished, run vagrant destroy to shut it down. There are lots more tricks you can play with Vagrant, but this is a relatively quick and easy one. Be aware that you’re not using HTTPS, so traffic to the AWX instance can be inspected, but if you’re running this on your local machine, it’s probably not a big issue.

How about running this on a cloud provider, like AWS? We can use the exact same scripts – both the Ansible script, and the user-data.sh script, using Terraform, however, this is a little more complex, as we need to create a VPC, Internet Gateway, Subnet, Security Group and Elastic IP before we can create the virtual machine. What’s more, the Free Tier (that “first hit is free” thing that Amazon Web Services provide to you) does not have enough horsepower to run AWX, so, if you want to look at how to run up AWX in EC2 (or to tweak it to run on Azure, GCP, Digital Ocean or one of the fine offerings from IBM or RedHat), then click through to the gist I’ve put all my code from this post into. The critical lines in there are to select a “CentOS 8” image, open HTTP and SSH into the machine, and to specify the user-data.sh file to provision the machine. Everything else is cruft to make the virtual machine talk to, and be seen by, hosts on the Internet.

To run this one, you need to run terraform init to load the AWS plugin, then terraform apply. Note that this relies on having an AWS access token defined, so if you don’t have them set up, you’ll need to get that sorted out first. Once you’ve finished with your demo, you should run terraform destroy to remove all the assets created by this terraform script. Again, when you’re running that demo, note that you ONLY have HTTP access set up, not HTTPS, so don’t use important credentials on there!

Once you’ve got your AWX environment running, you’ve got just enough AWX there to demo what Ansible Tower looks like, what it can bring to your organisation… and maybe even convince them that it’s worth investing in a license, rather than running AWX in production. Just in case you have that 2AM call-out that we all dread.

Featured image is “pharmacy” by “Tim Evanson” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY-SA license.

"#security #lockpick" by "John Jones" on Flickr

Auto-starting an SSH Agent in Windows Subsystem for Linux

I tend to use Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) as a comprehensive SSH client, mostly for running things like Ansible scripts and Terraform. One of the issues I’ve had with it though is that, on a Linux GUI based system, I would start my SSH Agent on login, and then the first time I used an SSH key, I would unlock the key using the agent, and it would be cached for the duration of my logged in session.

While I was looking for something last night, I came across this solution on Stack Overflow (which in turn links to this blog post, which in turn links to this mailing list post) that suggests adding the following stanza to ~/.profile in WSL. I’m running the WSL version of Ubuntu 20.04, but the same principles apply on Cygwin, or, probably, any headless-server installation of a Linux distribution, if that’s your thing.

SSH_ENV="$HOME/.ssh/agent-environment"
function start_agent {
    echo "Initialising new SSH agent..."
    /usr/bin/ssh-agent | sed 's/^echo/#echo/' > "${SSH_ENV}"
    echo succeeded
    chmod 600 "${SSH_ENV}"
    . "${SSH_ENV}" > /dev/null
}
# Source SSH settings, if applicable
if [ -f "${SSH_ENV}" ]; then
    . "${SSH_ENV}" > /dev/null
    ps -ef | grep ${SSH_AGENT_PID} | grep ssh-agent$ > /dev/null || {
        start_agent;
    }
else
    start_agent;
fi

Now, this part is all well-and-good, but what about that part where you want to SSH using a key, and then that being unlocked for the duration of your SSH Agent being available?

To get around that, in the same solution page, there is a suggestion of adding this line to your .ssh/config: AddKeysToAgent yes. I’ve previously suggested using dynamically included SSH configuration files, so in this case, I’d look for your file which contains your “wildcard” stanza (if you have one), and add the line there. This is what mine looks like:

Host *
  AddKeysToAgent yes
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/MyCurrentKey

How does this help you? Well, if you’re using jump hosts (using ProxyJump MyBastionHost, for example) you’ll only be prompted for your SSH Key once, or if you typically do a lot of SSH sessions, you’ll only need to unlock your session once.

BUT, and I can’t really stress this enough, don’t use this on a shared or suspected compromised system! If you’ve got a root account which can access the content of your Agent’s Socket and PID, then any protections that private key may have held for your system is compromised.

Featured image is “#security #lockpick” by “John Jones” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY-ND license.

"$bash" by "Andrew Mager" on Flickr

One to read: Put your bash code in functions

I’ve got a few mildly ropey bash scripts which I could do with making a bit more resilient, and perhaps even operating faster ;)

As such, I found this page really interesting: https://ricardoanderegg.com/posts/bash_wrap_functions/

In it, Ricardo introduces me to two things which are interesting.

  1. Using the wait command literally waits for all the backgrounded tasks to finish.
  2. Running bash commands like this: function1 & function2 & function3 should run all three processes in parallel. To be honest, I’d always usually do it like this:
    function1 &
    function2 &
    function3 &

The other thing which Ricardo links to is a page suggesting that if you’re downloading a bash script and executing it (which, you know, probably isn’t a good idea at the best of times), then wrapping it in a function, like this:

#!/bin/bash

function main() {
  echo "Some function"
}

main

This means that the bash scripting engine needs to download and parse all the functions before it can run the script. As a result, you’re less likely to get a broken run of your script, because imagine it only got as far as:

#!/bin/bash
echo "Some fun

Then it wouldn’t have terminated the echo command (as an example)…

Anyway, some great tricks here! Love it!

Featured image is “$bash” by “Andrew Mager” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY-SA license.

"Accept a New SSH Host Key" by "Linux Screenshots" on Flickr

Purposefully Reducing SSH Security when performing Builds of short-lived devices

I’ve recently been developing a few builds of things at home using throw-away sessions of virtual machines, and I found myself repeatedly having to accept and even having to remove SSH host keys for things I knew wouldn’t be around for long. It’s not a huge disaster, but it’s an annoyance.

This annoyance comes from the fact that SSH uses a thing called “Trust-On-First-Use” (Or TOFU) to protect yourself against a “Man-in-the-Middle” attack (or even where the host has been replaced with something malicious), which, for infrastructure that has a long lifetime (anything more than a couple of days) makes sense! You’re building something you want to trust hasn’t been compromised! That said, if you’re building new virtual machines, testing something and then rebuilding it to prove your script worked… well, that’s not so useful!

So, in this case, if you’ve got a designated build network, or if you trust, implicitly, your normal working network, this is a dead simple work-around.

In $HOME/.ssh/config or in $HOME/.ssh/config.d/local (if you’ve followed my previous advice to use separate ssh config files), add the following stanza:

# RFC1918
Host 10.* 172.16.* 172.17.* 172.18.* 172.19.* 172.20.* 172.21.* 172.22.* 172.23.* 172.24.* 172.25.* 172.26.* 172.27.* 172.28.* 172.29.* 172.30.* 172.31.* 192.168.*
        StrictHostKeyChecking no
        UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null

# RFC5373 and RFC2544
Host 192.0.2.* 198.51.100.* 203.0.113.* 198.18.* 198.19.*
        StrictHostKeyChecking no
        UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null

These stanzas let you disable host key checking for any IP address in the RFC1918 ranges (10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 and 192.168.0.0/16), and for the RFC5373 ranges (192.0.2.0/24, 198.51.100.0/24 and 203.0.113.0/24) – which should be used for documentation, and for the RFC2544 range (198.18.0.0/15) which should be used for inter-network testing.

Alternatively, if you always use a DDNS provider for short-lived assignments (for example, I use davd/docker-ddns) then instead, you can use this stanza:

Host *.ddns.example.com
        StrictHostKeyChecking no
        UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null

(Assuming, of course, you use ddns.example.com as your DDNS address!)

Featured image is “Accept a New SSH Host Key” by “Linux Screenshots” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY license.

"Monitors" by "Jaysin Trevino" on Flickr

Using monit to monitor Docker Containers

As I only run a few machines with services that matter on them (notably, my home server and my web server), I don’t need a full-on monitoring service, so instead rely on a system called monit.

Monit is an open source piece of software, used to monitor (see, it’s easily named 😄) and, if possible remediate issues with things it sees wrong.

I use this for watching whether particular services are running (and if not, restart them), for whether the ink in my printer is empty, and to monitor the free space and SMART status on my disks.

Today I noticed that a Docker container had stopped, and I’d not noticed. It wasn’t a big thing, but it gnawed at me, so I had a bit of a look around to see what I can find about this.

I found this blog post, titled “Monitoring Docker Containers with Monit”, from 2014, which suggested monitoring the result from docker top… and would you believe it, that’s a valid trick 🙂

So, here’s what I’m doing! Each container has it’s own file called/etc/monit/scripts/check_container_<container-name>.sh which has just this command in it:

#! /bin/bash
docker top "<container-name>"
exit $?

Note that you replace <container-name> in both the filename and the script itself with the name of the container – for example, the container hello-world would be monitored with the file check_container_hello-world.sh, and the line in that file would say docker top "hello-world".

I then have a file in /etc/monit/conf.d/ called check_container_<container-name> which has this content

CHECK PROGRAM <container-name> WITH PATH /etc/monit/scripts/check_container_<container-name>.sh
  START PROGRAM = "/usr/bin/docker start <container-name>"
  STOP PROGRAM = "/usr/bin/docker stop <container-name>"
  IF status != 0 FOR 3 CYCLES THEN RESTART
  IF 2 RESTARTS WITHIN 5 CYCLES THEN UNMONITOR

I then ensure that in /etc/monit/monitrc the line “include /etc/monit/conf.d/*” is included and not commented out, and then restart monit with systemctl restart monit.

Featured image is “Monitors” by “Jaysin Trevino” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY license.

"Fishing line and bobbin stuck on tree at Douthat State Park" by "Virginia State Parks" on Flickr

Note to self: Linux shell scripts don’t cope well with combined CRLF + LF files… Especially in User-Data / Custom Data / Cloud-Init scripts

This one is more a nudge to myself. On several occasions when building Infrastructure As Code (IAC), I split out a code sections into one or more files, for readability and reusability purposes. What I tended to do, and this was more apparent with the Linux builds than the Windows builds, was to forget to set the line terminator from CRLF to LF.

While this doesn’t really impact Windows builds too much (they’re kinda designed to support people being idiots with line endings now), Linux still really struggles with CRLF endings, and you’ll only see when you’ve broken this because you’ll completely fail to run any of the user-data script.

How do you determine this is your problem? Well, actually it’s a bit tricky, as neither cat, less, more or nano spot this issue. The only two things I found that identified it were file and vi.

The first part of the combined file with mixed line endings. This part has LF termination.
The second part of the combined file with mixed line endings. This part has CRLF termination.
What happens when we cat these two parts into one file? A file with CRLF, LF line terminators obviously!
What the combined file looks like in Vi. Note the blue ^M at the ends of the lines.

So, how to fix this? Assuming you’re using Visual Studio Code;

A failed line-ending clue in Visual Studio Code

You’ll notice this line showing “CRLF” in the status bar at the bottom of Code. Click on that, which brings up a discrete box near the top, as follows:

Oh no, it’s set to “CRLF”. That’s not what we want!

Selecting LF in that box changes the line feeds into LF for this file, but it’s not saved. Make sure you save this file before you re-run your terraform script!

Notice, we’re now using LF endings, but the file isn’t saved.

Fantastic! It’s all worked!

In Nano, I’ve opened the part with the invalid line endings.

Oh no! We have a “DOS Format” file. Quick, let’s fix it!

To fix this, we need to write the file out. Hit Ctrl+O. This tells us that we’re in DOS Format, and also gives us the keyboard combination to toggle “DOS Format” off – it’s Alt+D (In Unix/Linux world, the Alt key is referred to as the Meta key – hence M not A).

This is how we fix things

So, after hitting Alt+D, the “File Name to write” line changes, see below:

Yey, no pesky “DOS Format” warning here!

Using either editor (or any others, if you know how to solve line ending issues in other editors), you still need to combine your script back together before you can run it, so… do that, and your file will be fine to run! Good luck!

Featured image is “Fishing line and bobbin stuck on tree at Douthat State Park” by “Virginia State Parks” on Flickr and is released under a CC-BY license.